Research - Other Sources


“The National Cholesterol Education Program Diet vs. a Diet Lower in Carbohydrates and Higher in Protein and Monounsaturated Fat”,

Aude, Y. W., Agatson, A.S., et al

Archives of Internal Medicine, 164, 2004, 2141-2146


“The Role of Energy Expenditure in the Differential Weight Loss in Obese Women on Low-Fat and

 Low-Carbohydrate Diets

Brehm, Bonnie J., Spang, Suzanne E., et al

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(3): 1475-1482


“Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart

 Disease Risk Reduction”

A Randomized Trial

Dansinger, Michael L., Gleason, Joi Augustin, et al

Journal of the American Medical Association, January 5, 2005-Vol. 293, No. 1


“Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients”

Dashti, Hussein M., Matthews, T.C., et al

Experimental and Clinical Cardiology, Vol.9, No., 3, 2004


“Long Term Effects of ketogenic diet in obese subjects with high cholesterol”

Dashti, Hussein M., Al-Zaid, Anji S., et al

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 286: 1-9, 2006


“A Low-Carbohydrate Diet in Overweight Patients Undergoing Stable Statin Therapy Raises High-Density

 Lipoprotein and Lowers Triglycerides Substantially”

Gann, Ditmar

Clinical Cardiology,Vol. 27, No. 10, Pages 563-64, October 2004


“Effect of a High-Protein, Low Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes”

Gannon, M., Nuttall, F.

Diabetes, Vol.53, September 2004


“Utility of a Short-Term 25% Carbohydrate Diet on Improving Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”

Gutierrez, M., Akhavan, M., et al

Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol.17, No. 6, pages 595-600, 1998


“Results Of Use Of Metformin And Replacement Of Starch With Saturated Fat In Diets Of Patients With

 Type 2 Diabetes”

Hays, J., Gorman, R., et al

Endocrine Practice, Vol.8, No.3, May/June 2002


“Effects of a High Saturated Fat and No-Starch Diet on Serum Lipid Subfractions in Patients With

 Documented Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease”

Hays, J., DiSabatino, A et al

Mayo Clinic Proc. 78: 1331-1336, 2003


“Diet Therapy for Narcolepsy”

Husain, A.M., Yancy, W., et al

Neurology, Vol.62, Issue 12, pages, 2300-02, June 22, 2004


“Efficacy of the Atkins Diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy”

Kossoff, E., Krauss, G., et al

Neurology, Vol. 61, pages 1789-91, December 2003


“Comparison of a Low-Fat Diet to a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on weight Loss, Body Composition, and Risk

 Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Free-Living, Overweight Men and Women”

Meckling, K., O’Sullivan, C., Saari, D

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol.89, No. 6, pages 2717-2723 2004


“A Randomized Study Comparing the Effects of a low-Carbohydrate Diet and a Conventional Diet on

 Lipoprotein Subfractions and C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with Severe Obesity”

Seshadri, P., Iqbal, N., et al

The American Journal of Medicine, Vo. 117, no. 6, pages 398-405, September 15, 2004


“Very Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets Affect Fasting Lipids and Postprandial Lipemia Differently

 in Overweight Men”

Sharman, M., Gomez, A. et al

American Society for Nutritional Sciences, 132, pages 1879-85, 2002


“A Ketogenic Diet Favorably Affects Serum Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal-Weight Men”

Sharman, M., Kraemer, W., et al

American Society for Nutritional Sciences, Vol.132, pages 1879-85, 2002


“Cardiovascular and Hormonal Aspects of Very-Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets”

Volek, J., Sharman, M.

Obesity Research, Vol.12, November 2004 supplement


“Weight loss leads to reductions in inflammatory biomarkers after a very-low-carbohydrate diet and a

 low-fat diet in overweight men”

Sharman, M., Volek, J.

The Obesity Society, Vol.107, pages 365-69, 2004


“Effects Of A Low-Carbohydrate Diet On Weight Loss And Cardiovascular Risk Factors In Overweight Adolescents”

Sondike S., Cooperman, N. et al

The Journal of Pediatrics, Vol.142, Issue5, pages 253-58, March 2003


“The Effects Of Low-Carbohydrate versus Conventional Weight Loss Diets in Severely Obese Adults: One Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial”

Stern, L., Iqbal, N., et al

Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 140, No.10, May 18, 2004


“Fasting Lipoprotein and Postprandial Triacylglycerol Responses to a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Supplemented

 with n-3 Fatty Acids”

Volek, J., Gomez, A., et al

Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol.19, No.3, pages 383-91, 2000

"Greater Reduction in Inflammatory Markers with a Low Carbohydrate Diet than with a Calorically Matched

 Low Fat Diet”

O’Brien, Kevin

Presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions on November 19, 2002


“The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal

 exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation.”

Phinney, SD, Bistrian, BR, et al

Metabolism, Vol.32, No.8, pages 769-776, August 1983


“Capacity for moderate exercise in obese subjects after adaptation to a hypocaloric, ketogenic diet.”

Phinney, SD, Horton, ES, et al

Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 66, No.5, pages 1152-1161, November 1980


“Comparative studies in obese subjects fed carbohydrate-restricted and high carbohydrate 1,000calorie formula diets”

Rabast, U., Kasper, H., et al

Nutrition Metabolism, Vol.22, No. 5, pages 269-277, 1978


“The questionable role of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease”

Ravnskov, U.

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol.51, No.6, pages 461-465, June 1998


“Is atherosclerosis caused by high cholesterol?”

Ravnskov, U

QJM, Vol. 95, No.6, pages 397-403, June 1995


“A hypothesis out-of-date, the diet-heart idea”


Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol., 55, No. 11, pages 1064-1072, November 2002


“The Atkins Diet for Epilepsy?”

Romano, CJ

Neurology Reviews, Vol. 12, No. 1, January 2004

 “Carbohydrates and the risk of breast cancer among Mexican women”

Romieu I., Lazcano-Ponce E., et al

Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Preview, Vol. 13, No.8, pages 1283-1289, 2004


 :Effects of high-fat and high carbohydrate diets on metabolism and performance in cycling”

Rowlands, DS. Hopkins, WG

Metabolism, Vol. 51, No. 6, pages 678-690, June 2002


“Animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol intakes and risk of cerebral infarction mortality in the adult health study”

Sauvaget, C., Nagano, J., et al

Stroke, Vol. 35, No. 7 Pages 1531-1537, July 2004


“Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women”

Schulze, MB. Manson, JE., et al

Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292, No. 8, pages 927-934


“Effect of protein on bone mineralization during weight loss: a 6-month trial”

Skov, AR., Haulrik, N., et al

Obesity Research, Vol.10, No. 6, pages 423-438, June 2002  

“A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity”

Spieth, LE., Harnish, JD, et al

Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 154, No. 9, pages 947-951, September 2000

“The ketogenic diet increase mitochondrial uncoupling protein levels and activity”

Sullivan, PG., Rippy, NA., et al

Annals of Neurology, Vol. 55, No.4, pages 576-580, April 2004

 “Ketones: metabolism’s ugly duckling”

VanItallie, TB., Nufert TH

Nutrition Review, Vol. 61, No. 10, pages 327-341, October 2003

“Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children”

Warren, JM., Henry, CJ

Pediatrics, Vol. 112, No. 5, pages e414, November 2003

“The diet-heart hypothesis: a critique”

Weinbery, SL

Journal of the American College of Cardiology,  Vol. 43, No. 5, pages 731-733, March 2004

“Dietary protein intake and risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly residents of Utah”

Wengreen, HJ., Munger,RG., et al

Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, pages 537-545, April 2004 

“The significance of protein in food intake and body weight regulation”

Westerterp-PLantenga MS

Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, Vol. 6, No. 6, pages 635-638, November 2003

“A review of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets”

Westman, EC., Mavropoulos, et al

Current Atherosclerosis Reports, Vol. 5, No.6, pages, 476-483, November 2003

“Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program”

Westman, EC., Yancy, WS., et al

American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 113, No. 1, pages 30-36, July 2002

“Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity: no”

Willet, WC

Obesity Reviews, Vol. 3, No.2, pages 59-68

 “A prospective study of association of monounsaturated fat and other types of fat with risk of breast cancer”

Wolk, A., Bergstrom, R., et al

Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol.158, No.1, pages 41-45, January 12, 1998 

“Very-low-carbohydrate weight –loss diets revisited”

Volek, J., Westman, E.

Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, Vol. 69, No. 11, pages 849-862, November 2002 

“Metabolic Effects of Weight Loss on a Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diet Compared With an Isocaloric

 High-Carbohydarte Diet in Abdominally Obese Subjects”

Tay, J., Brinkworth, GD., et al

Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol.51, No. 1, Pages 59-67, January1/8, 2008

 “Restricted-Carbohydrate diets in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis”

Kirk, JK., Graves, DE., et al

Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol.108, pages 91-100, January 2008

 “Carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol modulate the expression of HMG-CoA reductase

and the LDL receptor in mononuclear cells from adult men”

Mutungi, G., Torres-Gonzalex, M., et al

Lipids in Health and Disease, Vol. 6, No. 34, 2007

 “Comparison of Low Fat and Low Carbohydrate Diets on Circulating Fatty Acid Composition and

 Markers of Inflammation”

Forsythe, C.E., Phinney, S., et al

Lipids, DOI 10. 1007/s11745-007-3132-7

“Carbohydrate Restriction, Prostate Cancer Growth, and the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis”

Freedland, S.J., Mavropoulos J., et al

The Prostate, Vol. 68, No.1, pages 11-19, January 2008

“Association of Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemia With Accelerated Growth of Prostate Cancer (LNCaP) Xenographs”

Venkateswaran, V., Haddad, A., et al

Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 99, pages 1793-800, November 2007

 “Hepatic Steatosis and Increased Adiposity in Mice Consuming Rapidly vs. Slowly Absorbed Carbohydrate”

Scribner, K.B., Pawlak D.B., Ludwig D.S.,

Obesity, Vol. 15, No. 9, pages 2190-2199, September 2007

“Three-Year Weight Change in Successful Weight Losers Who Lost Weight on a Low-Carbohydrate Diet”

Phelan, S., Wyatt, H., et al

Obesity, Vol.15, No. 10, pages 2470-2477, October 2007

“Arguments in Favor of  Ketogenic Diets”

Perez-Guisado, J.

The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007

“Fat intake and injury in female runners”

Gerlach, K., Burton, H., et al

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 3, 2008

 “A low-carbohydrate diet is more effective in reducing body weight than healthy eating in both

 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects”

Dyson, PA., Matthews, DR

Diabetic Medicine, Volume 24, No. 12, pages 1430-1435, December 2007

A Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet Improvers Gastroesophageal Reflux and Its Symptoms”

Austin, Gregory L., Thiny, Michelle, et al

Dig Dis Sci, July 27, 2006


“ Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic

 dyslipidemia, fatty acid portioning, and metabolic syndrome”

 Volek, J., Fernandez, M., Feinman, R., Phinney, S.

Progress in Lipid Research, March 15, 2008

“Effects of protein versus simple sugar intake on weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome

(according to the National Institutes of Health criteria)”

Kasim-Karakas, SE., Almario, RU., Cunningham, W.

Fertility and Sterility, August 6, 2008

“Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets

 in the management of obesity and its comorbidities”

Hession, M., Rolland, C., et al

Obesity Review, August 11, 2008

“A Call for Higher Standards of Evidence for Dietary Guidelines”

Marantz, PR., Bird, ED., Alderman, MH

American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 3, Pages 234-240, March 2008 

“Effects of two energy-restricted diets differing in the carbohydrate/protein ratio on weight loss

 and oxidative changes of obese men”

Abete, I., Parra, D., et al

International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, July 25, 2008

 “Long-term effects of a diet loosely restricting carbohydrates on HbA1C levels, BMI and tapering

 of sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetes: A 2-year follow-up study”

Haimoto, H., Iwata, M., et al

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 79. No. 2, pages 350-356, 2008

“Relation Between Carbohydrate Intake and Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery”

Faria, SL., Faria, OP., et al

Obesity Surgery, July 2008

 “Dietary Glycemic Index, Development of Islet Autoimmunity, and Subsequent Progression

to Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children”

Lamb, MM., Yin, X., et al

Journal of Endocrinology Metabolism, August 5, 2008

 “Metabolic syndrome and the role of dietary lifestyles in Alzheimer’s disease”

Pasinetti, GM., Eberstein, JA

Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol.106, pages 1503-1514, 2008    

“A review of low and reduced carbohydrate diets and weight loss in type 2 diabetes”

Dyson, PA

Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, August 2008

 Effect of a Low-Glycemic Index or a High-Cereal Fiber Diet on Type 2 Diabetes”

Jenkins DJ., Kendall CWC., et al

JAMA, 2008, 300 (23):2742-2753

December 17, 2008

 “Alterations in hepatic glucose and energy metabolism as a result of a carbohydrate restriction”

Browning JD., Weis B., et al

Hepatology, 2008, Nov., 48: 5 pages 1487-1496


“A Moderate-Protein Diet Produces Sustained Weight Loss and Long-Term Changes in Body Composition and

Blood Lipids in Obese Adults”

Layman D, Evans E, et al

The Journal of Nutrition, January 21, 2009, vol. 139, 514-521


“ Fat Oxidation during Exercise and Satiety during Recovery Are Increased following a Low-Glycemic Index

 Breakfast in Sedentary Women”

Stevenson E, Astbury N, et al

The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 139, No. 5, 890-897, May 2009


“Effects of two weight-loss diets on health-related quality of life”

Yancy W, Almirall D, et al

Qual Life Res, Vol. 78, No. 3, 281-289, April 2009


“A 6-Month, Office-Based, Low-Carbohydrate Diet Intervention in Obese Teens”

Siegel R, Rich W, et al

Clinical Pediatrics, March 4, 2009 DOI: 10.1177/0009922809332585


“Insulin, Insulin-like growth factor-l, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women”

Gunter MJ, Hoover DR, et al

Journal of National Cancer Institute, Vol. 101, No. 1, 48-60, January 7, 2009


“A Systematic Review of the Evidence Supporting a Causal Link Between Dietary Factors and Coronary

 Heart Disease”

Mente A, de Koning L, et al

Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 169, No. 7, 659-669, April 13, 2009

“A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat- reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program”

Frisch S, Zitterman A, et al

Cardiovascular Diabetology, 2009, Vol.8, No 36, doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-36, July 18, 2009


“Increasing dietary protein requirements in elderly people for optimal muscle and bone health”

Gaffney-Stomberg E, Insogna KL, et al

Journal of the American Geriatric Society, June 2009, Vol. 57, No 6, 1073-1079, Epub 2009 April 30


“Effects of dietary carbohydrate on the development of obesity in heterozygous Zucker rats”

Morris KL, Namey TC, Zemel MB

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2003, Vol.14, 32-39


“Vulnerable Plaque Formation from Obstruction of  Vaso Vasorum by Homocysteinylated and Oxidized Lipoprotein Aggregates Complexed with Microbial Remnants and LDL Autoantibodies”

Ravnskov R, McCully K

Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, Vol. 39, No1, 3-16, 2009


“Insulin-induced weight gain and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. A report from the DIGAMI 2 study”

Aas AM, Ohrvik J, et al

Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Vol. 11, No4, 323-329, October 13, 2008


“The Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study”

Tendler D, Lin S, et al

Dig Dis Sci, 2007, Vol. 52, No 2, 589-593, February 2007 


“ Nonalcholic Fatty Liver Disease and Low- Carbohydrate Diets”

York WL, Puthalapattu S, Wu GY

Annual Review of Nutrition, 2009, Vol.29, 365-379, August 2009


“Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated With Greater Histologic Severity, Higher Carbohydrate, and Lower Fat Diet in Patients with NAFLD”

Kang H, Greenson JK, et al

American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2006, Vol.101, No 10, 2247-2253, November 15, 2006


“Childhood obesity: behavioral aberration or biochemical drive? Reinterpreting the First Law of thermodynamics

Lustig, RH

Endocrinology & Metabolism, August 2006, Vol. 2, No 8, 447-458, 2006


“Three-year weight change in successful weight losers who lost weight on a low-carbohydrate diet”

Phelan S, Wyatt H et al

Obesity, 2007, Vol.15, No 10, 2470-2477, October 2007